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This problem has been extensively studied in the literature and has even become a benchmark problem for the validation of nonlinear formulations. Among other approaches, the substructuring technique was proven to be a valid strategy to account for this problem. Later, the similarities between the absolute nodal coordinate formulation and the substructuring technique were demonstrated. At the same time, it was found the existence of a critical angular velocity, beyond which the system becomes unstable that was dependent on the number of substructures. Since the dependence of the critical velocity was not so far clear, this paper tries to shed some light on it.
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The activated drug targets the enzyme InhA, which is involved in cell wall biosynthesis. Finally, of the 24 ETHs isolates, 23 had no mutation in the studied genes and 1 displayed a yet unknown mutation in the inhA promoter. Ethionamide ETH , a second-line antituberculous drug, is a structural thioamide analogue of isoniazid INH , the cornerstone of front-line tuberculosis TB treatment.
In vitro phenotypic investigation of ETH resistance is experimentally difficult and can yield discordant results according to the experimental method and resistance breakpoint values used, which still remain matters of debate Therefore, a genotypic approach would be of great value to improve and hasten DST and the management of MDR-TB, as well as reduce the proportion of patients inadequately treated on the basis of erroneous DST results, consequently limiting the emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis among patients treated for MDR-TB.
Consequently, cross-resistance to these two antibiotics can be observed in clinical isolates.
This apparent paradox is due to the fact that INH and ETH are prodrugs that need to be activated by mycobacterial enzymes in order to exert their antimicrobial activity, with each drug being activated by a specific mechanism.
In addition, the expression of EthA is negatively regulated by EthR, a regulator that interacts directly with the ethA promoter region Resistance to ETH or INH has previously been reported to result primarily from i mutations altering the activator proteins KatG 14 , 23 and EthA 3 , 10 , 21 , leading to resistance to INH and ETH, respectively; ii mutations in the InhA protein targeted by INH and ETH, which prevents the corresponding activated forms of the drugs from binding the target, leading to cross-resistance to both antibiotics 2 , 29 ; iii mutations in the inhA promoter region that cause overexpression of the target InhA and cross-resistance to the two drugs 3 , 10 , 16 ; and iv mutations in the negative transcriptional regulator EthR, specifically leading to ETH resistance ETHr 3.
Few systematic studies on the distribution of nucleotide changes affecting the above-mentioned genes and focused primarily on a limited number of genes have been conducted 4 , 10 , 13 , 17 , 21 , Sound Vib.
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