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Indeed, it is not so easy to make a simple summary of an entire civilization: the latter is never in itself either uniform, nor monolithic, since it evolves in space and time. Nevertheless, it is possible to draw certain principles and characteristics specific to each of these three civilizations on which we are all mainly dependent. So there are in main lines: 1. Rome: The Romans, these are among others order, organization, military and political force, and formalism that we find until in Latin epigraphy generally very stereotypical. Square are for example the military camps and the insulae of the cities. It is the typical architectural organization of a city with its streets at right angles in cardo and decumanus: the urban fabric with this famous checkerboard plan. The Romans were strongly inspired by rhe Greeks in the field of mythology, literature, theatre, epic and lyric poetry, but still preferred comedy to tragedy.

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In poetry, after Lucretius, Catullus and Horace, Ovid was more didactic and individualistic. The culminating period of Rome is indeed that of the 12 Caesars from Julius Caesar to the emperor Domitian, as Suetonius wrote : therefore, it takes place at the beginning of our era.

The reigns of Trajan and his successor Hadrian correspond to the maximum expansion of the Roman Empire. During this period is also initiated gradually this artistic and literary revival in its content, and this renewal of mores also, both breathed by the nascent Christianity.

The legacy of the Romans: Roman law, for example, continues to govern our laws, the Latin language also continues to interfere in our lives, it which is the basis of most of our European languages French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Rumanian, etc. We owe to the Romans our calendar called Julian , as well as our alphabet and numbers Our institutions are strongly inspired by them.

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Without forgetting that many of our habits and customs of daily and religious life today still keep the trace of Rome. The Romans gave us their practical sense. In architecture, for example, they use a fast and economical construction process, brick, with the frequent and bold use of arches, vaults and domes.


It emerges all the temples, amphitheaters, circuses, forums and basilicas which we know. The aqueducts also with the use of water for its public use: thermae, fountains and sewers. Advanced heating system: the hypocaust. They invented the arches, the crane, the pulley and construction machinery. Vitruvius, the theorist of Roman architecture 1st century BC inspired Palladio in the 16th century. The practical sense of the Romans is also found in trade: they label foods on the amphorae for example; and even until the world of literature: Virgil combines the two Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey into one the Aeneid.

Very down-to-earth, the Romans feel attracted by the campaign and the rustic world, more than for city life and the maritime world in general. It may even explain why the early Christians of Rome abandoned the anchor, as a Christian symbol, precisely because they had so little taste for sea The Romans, practical men by excellence, have been able to create an impressing road network all around the Mediterranean forming an infrastructure that we still reuse nowadays quite largely.

It is worth noting to finish the contribution of scientific medicine from the end of the 3rd century BC promoted to tell the truth by professional doctors coming from the Hellenistic world. The legacy of the Romans is the Greco Roman culture. From the Roman Empire also arose Christianity. Athens: The Greeks, for their part, are as well a group of city states polis and colonies independent of one another Athens, Sparta, Thebes; Syracuse and Magna Graecia, Marseille, etc.

In Europe also they are the first thinkers and philosophers see the famous 7 wise men , the first poets and playwrights, the first historians and scientists.

The Greeks are indeed the first ones among the Indo European peoples to have left a lasting, uniform mark of quality at international level. Freedom and democracy are the most important contributions of Greek culture to political thought. Greece allowed freedom of thought and expression, both political and philosophical, to a limited number of citizens, but allowed it.

Let us not forget that women and slaves did not count politically, which is why Greek regimes were more like aristocracies. Nevertheless, Athens was certainly the most liberal of all the Greek cities, even if one can wonder however why they put to death Socrates, if there was between citizens a total freedom of expression and thought. The Greeks being generally reflexive and philosophical, art is synonymous with proportion, balance and perfection.

In education likewise the sense of utility is not important, it is not essential, but rather beauty in its ideal sense, desired or wished image. Art objects were appreciated. The sculptures in human forms are idealized and follow a canon, often of completely naked people, representing the Greek ideal. Art is therefore characterized by the search for beauty and perfection.

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Phidias became known not only for his sculptures, but also for having been in charge of all the construction projects of the Acropolis of Athens. Nor is it necessary to stress the importance of the sea for the Greeks: they are shipbuilders, not road builders.

Their maritime vocabulary is highly developed for this purpose, their fleets too. Moreover bronze remains the main metal used. The thirst for discoveries, as well as the practical necessities, push them to travel far away, both in the imagination and in reality: and this, from the adventures of Ulysses to the conquest of the Middle East by Alexander the Great maximal territorial expansion in BC, unifying for a very short time the West to the East.

The legacy of the Greeks: The English language abounds in expressions and words from the Greek language and mythology: an amphitryon an host , a boeotian a philistine , the Achilles heel a vulnerable point , rich like Croesus extremely rich , etc. The Greek language, derived from the Phoenician, will give birth to Latin, Cyrillic and Coptic among others. In addition, we have the stone columns of Ancient Greece and their styles, copied by the Romans: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. The taste for body exercise remains very current, as well as the Olympic games that we owe them!

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Their ceramics too which is better preserved than their gold and silver treasures, than the temples statues, etc. The love of the Greeks for music also served as emulation for their scientific research.

We use their mathematics dear to Pythagoras, Thales of Miletus, Archimedes, Euclid and Democritus with his famous notion of the atom ; we also use their length measurement systems.

We keep the basics of geometry and arithmetic Pythagoras , of astronomy where Aristarchus of Samos determined that the Sun is the center of universe , as well as the basics of medicine with Hippocrates and his famous oath and of history itself with Herodotus rightly considered as the father of history.

The legacy of the Greeks is therefore considerable on many levels.

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Let us not forget first of all the principles of democracy and social organization with Cleisthenes, Ephialtes and Pericles. Moreover, we keep their temples, their heroes and their legends. The theatre remains marked by the figures of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides. If they are penetrated by the feeling of the sacred, the border between religion and superstition is often indecisive for them. In a general way we can say that polytheism tends to degenerate much more into superstition than to raise the moral level of the crowd.