Minimalism Architecture. 1. MINIMALISM “A shape, a volume, a color, a surface is something itself. It shouldn't be concealed as part of a fairly. ture and the visual arts are. Minimalism in Art differentiated and articu-. _. □ -. _ lated. The rise of so called and Architecture,. •minimalist' architecture. T L n i. Dragana Vasilski MINIMALISM IN ARCHITECTURE: ARCHITECTURE AS A LANGUAGE OF ITS IDENTITY INTRODUCTION "Our age every day confirms it's .
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PDF | Every architectural work is created on the principle that includes the meaning, and then this work is read like an artifact of the particular meaning. During the s, the idea of Minimalism presents itself as one of the response of the search of universal language in art and architecture. Less is More with. Minimalist Architecture. Ruth Malan and Dana Bredemeyer. As an architect, you have been picked from your organiza- tion's top technical.
Minimalism was initially dominant in sculpture where the works of Donal Judd, Carl Andre are mentioned. Soon this creative approach bagan to win over followers among contemporary architects.
Hence the architectural roots can be found, to a greater or lesser degree in minimalism. History of Architecture AP Essay Page 2 of 5 Minimalist architecture describes a style characterized by an imperial austerity, plain geometric configuration and industrially processed materials.
An example to this is bahaus school where Functionality and simplicity were combined with aesthetics, to produce a purer form of design. Previously, Art Nouveau had been about creating ornate, complicated, decorative products. The Bauhaus reduced the complexity of design to simplicity, functionality and a pure form of aesthetics. For Gregotti, architectural minimalism is a part of a broader tendency to supress what is excessive in artistic practice , on the basis of discovering elementary , archetypal gestures.
According to him there should be literal use of materials that satisfy the term minimal and no ornamentation done on the faade treatment. In the space of reduction, comprised only primary architectural elements , light and material, the relation between the user and spatial unit is intensifiefd.
According to Avon and Vragnaz , they relate minimalism with an experience of emptiness, originating from Buddhist tradition. As a key of Japanese minimalism there was a spirit of the wabi- moral principle, which advocates simplistic characterstics. Wabi is based on a Zen concept, according to which separation from material possessions leads to self realization and self liberation.
Meis Vander Rohe, Gunnard Asplund and Adolf Loos were staunchly against the ornamentation or anything that would have a disguising effect. History of Architecture AP Essay Page 3 of 5 Less Is More , Van der Rohes famous phrase, emphasizes the idea of giving maximum power to architectural space by not providing any accessory. Hence as rightly said by him the fewer elements that make up a work, the more eloquent it will be.
Minimalism takes great advantage of light in order to highlight the qualities of a material and to add dynamism to a space.
Large windows and translucent parameters allow light to enter in a diffuse form. As a consequence shadows become blurred and objects tend to appear suspended.
Therefore the object and space they occupy acquire a certain relationship. On certain occasions , natural light produces a pattern in the space , and its changing position let us know of the passing of time or the change of season.
Moreover the way materials are used are also noteworthy. Architects carefully select wood , stone, plaster or concrete , depending on what they wish to express. The choice of material is in harmony with this quest of minimalism and simplicity. As far as planning part is concernerd application of simple basic shape is ensured in order to harmonise with simplicity ad minimalism.
The idea of using staircase without risers , laying furniture in a way to integrate it into the architecture so as to make it the largest surface area available for use and to afford a genereal feeling of spaciousness are the key factors. From a house in San Franciscos to a Buddhist temple, to a mountain shelter in Switzerland , minimalist architecture canvases most efficient building History of Architecture AP Essay Page 4 of 5 designs ensuring the strategy of less is more being followed which economizes space , light , and mass and can lend itself to aesthetic yet functional structures.
Minimalisms unique use of shapes , lines and materials gives way to strong simplistic designs. Here focus was more on functionality and simplicity. Is Minimalist architecture a style or a philosophical statement? Study of Japanese spirituality related to minimalism in architecture links it to traditional theories. Japanese minimalism is a tribute to emptiness, moral encouragement and self realization. The most influential English Minimalist architect , Pawsons works are a great influence of japanese influence.
He uses the concept of simplicity and reduction as the key to understand minimalism. The contrast between the loud and the quiet in terms of architectural is represented as minimalist sophistication. Hence it is not seen as a style but rather as a philosophy of life, which offers visual peace in the chaos of urban life.
Minimalism is a perceptive therapy for liberation from everyday hustle and relaxing in the peaceful paradise of elegant simplicity. According to Italian designer Vignelli suggests that minimalism is not a style, it is a behaviour, a reaction to visual noise.
But One common criticism of minimalism in architecture - or in design in general - is that it is aesthetically cold and that it creates an unwelcoming home environment. Proponents of the design style argue that in fact minimalism is more welcoming than more ornate styles of design. They say History of Architecture AP Essay Page 5 of 5 that taking the "less is more" approach creates a relaxing, calming environment free of all of the clutter that demands attention in more ornate design styles.
According to Bernotti , minimalism avoids the impression of coldness using tactile material qualities and texture subtlety.
Sensory and bodily experience of non cluttered space is underlined. In reality, it all comes down to a matter of taste. Some people prefer grandiose architecture while some prefer simple and clean styles.
The principles of minimalism can be applied poorly, which can indeed be stark, but properly employed, minimalism can be elegant and inviting. Minimalist Architecture Uploaded by albertpinto Flag for inappropriate content. Architecture talk and communicate, it is a form of "primary activities", such as the language is, on witch is based the human society, as argued by Botero Bottero, His idea of "talking architecture" is based on the fact that the architectural details and forms are words that should express thoughts.
Ledu has claimed in his writings and in their buildings, trying to show that every building represents a voice, text, story, statement. Etienne-Louis Boullee, architect and member of the French Academy, acknowledges the supremacy of geometry and in the Cenotaph for the English physicist, mathematician and astronomer Isaac Newton, he applied analogy in the symbol of a globe, the sphere itself was the most appropriate means of expressing the Absolute with the language of architecture Fig.
In his essay, "Principles of Construction" Adolf Loos wrote that the real vocabulary of architecture lies in the materials themselves, and that the building should remain "stupid" from the outside.
Radical manifesto of the modern movement involves the rejection of 19th century obsession with the revival of historical styles and the generation of architectural language that was "honest" in its time and purpose, which reflected the ideological and technological spirit of the early 20th century.
Wright said that every great architect is an poet at the same time, because he must be an original interpreter of his time and his generation. With abandonment of historical styles and forms, the architecture had to invent a new language, a language which no longer showed the handwork of the craftsmen, in order the language had to show the slick world of machines, languages that no longer reflect the limitations of design and technique, but rather demonstrated a new technical freedom.
This freedom is portrayed not only on the facades, which stood tensely to demonstrate their modernity, but in essence, reflecting the new opportunities that was more suitable for the modern life.
The canonical work of Constructivist was a project of Vladimir Tatljin for a monument to 3rd Internationale , a design project that was inspired, and the whole movement of constructivism, with the triumph of modern technology, which what the author called other artists to follow his example to project new structures for everyday life Modernism, In the sixties of the XX century the energy of the modern movement was lost.
Articulating popular sentiments at that time, Norman Mailer, in dealing with rare architectural critic, wrote that: This dissatisfaction with modern architecture and modern movement grew.
In the new esseys is highlighted the renewed interest in history Jenks, Rowe, Koeter, Everything changes and everything stays the same or: The postmodern movement much of its program based on the concept of architecture as language, sort of computer system of signs.
The main Henry Lefebvre Lefebvre, To which extent can space be read or decoded, deciphered? He advocates, for postmodernist architecture as a sign is much more important than the architecture as a function, which is further elaborated by Robert Venturi Venturi, Umberto Eco, "negating the Structure, confirming the structures" Eko, Bruno Zevi provides seven principles "antirules" for the codification of language architecture of Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe and Wright.
Instead of the classical language used in school of fine arts, with a focus on abstract principles of order, proportion and symmetry, it is an alternative system of communication that features a free interpretation of contents and functions Zevi, As the focus of research in the architecture from the sixties was the detection of a number of posts of the architectural works and their relationships, levels of meaning, used codes , so since the late seventies emerged a number of architects who wanted the architectural language free of any "speech" obligation and to deprive it of any "expression" desire.
They believed that form in the architecture has the right to "meditate and to express the one and only itself" Tafuri, Definitions of architecture today insist that the architectural work post meaning at several levels and that the value of this part increases with the number of codes.
Architecture as a cultural facility that emphasizes the power of communication, and which gives the privilege as a form of linguistic expression and narration, can be found as the part of Bernard Tschumi's famous project for the Parc de la Villette in Paris, he expresses the view of the socio-shaped forms of language as a key to understanding the general architecture. While Lefebvre and Jencks used linguistics and semantics for decoding space, Tschumi turns to philosophical resources to work out an "poetic" reading of architecture.
In this Tschumi's work Jaques Derrida deconstructionism philosophy is "translated" as inability to have meaning in "text", or language in general, thanks to the deconstruction of language in its grounds, where you can discover multiple meanings. But unlike his contemporaries, Tschumi's reference to deconstructionism are going to be on mostly formal level.
Tschumi's work, by the texts of Derrida, as well Steven Holl3, translating the philosophy of phenomenology, it was not based on a literal application of the idea, but on a serious philosophical translating the language of architecture.
Famous Dutch architect Herman Hertzberger showed very high awareness of the language of space, not only in his facilities, but also through his writings Hertzberger, As well as his lectures.
Christopher Alexander developed the theory of associative correspondence between language as patterns pattern languages in the architecture which he considered part of nature and patterns of events , leading to values with no name the quality without a name in which his timeless way of building achieves fulfillment. Exposing the conceptual and language skills in confusing manner, he makes statements about the architecture which, thanks to their great generality, have some value, but that can hardly be linked to practical matters.
Anything that is defended without being called with lot of arguments is dubious eo ipso the same thing.
Qui nimium probat, nihil probat Who proves too much - proves nothing. The message as a part of the architecture can be shown through different aspects of the architecture, which become the means of communication. This is a set of intentions that are realized in the totality of experience as "something in the air", as the latent tensions, poetics, purposefulness, spirituality, identity, refinement.
The expressiveness of the language of silence we are talking about is not possible to express with normative exactness as a ratio , but it is more subject to assessment of sharpened sensibility, developed on the basis of taste for the culture Fig. Sensitivity is a philosophical category related to issues of meaning, a sort of spiritual instrument with which we feel world as a kind of specific "flavors" of existence.
These criteria's are designed, and are sophisticated sensibility indicators, as they determine the quality of wine, tea flavor or odor of perfume. Quality of space is expressed through formed vacuum and expressive silence, to form an expression that tends to be the architecture of simplicity ie, her fantasies reveals a harmony of simplicity of life itself.
Given the different types of sensibility, the world can be experienced selective, sensation of the world pass through a filter that protects us, omitting that which corresponds to our assumption about the world, our world picture.
Therefore certain things are clear, and for some we are blind "Eyes that do not see," Le Corbusier , so that is why creativity can be 3 Steven Holl: A black swan theory Princeton Architectural Press, Architecture spoken, Rizzoli, But that intention is in juxtaposition, as with the existing culture and the organizational tendency for standardization of such things, and determining their per aeternam eternal. Or, as Carl Andre said: Culture is what is done to us".
Cerami writes: Instead, language is always suppressed, reduced, because it is based on previous cultures that are often difficult to condition the process of codification of thought Derrida would say: Expression in some sense outside imprints the meaning firstly in the sense inside" Derrida, Minimalist expression, in a certain way the whole modernist style, contains image of deceptive simplicity.
This phantasm is realized through the stopped language that is known in Japan under the term "satori" - in Western languages as well as intuition. Satori is an intuitive insight into the essence of things, as opposed to their rational understanding. Implies the introduction of a new world which was not observed to the moment of satori. For those who have reached the satori, the world is no longer the old world as it once was, and from that moment in their lives they find result of shifting that opens the mind for deeper and wider world.
Satori, so, for man's moral and spiritual life has a sublime effect. Satori, the highest expression of Zen, is present in the root of Japanese culture as the bearer of its existence and authenticity Vasilski, , as a satori opens the heart and mind for a broader and deeper insight, various Zen arts are just different expressions of that experience. In painting, the sumi, which contains only hints of the characters the man has been incorporated into the landscape and nature.
The tea ceremony is dominated by the desire for detachment from profanity. In the calligraphy is all in one streak, presenting a moment of eternity, there is no repetition. In the arrangement of the landscape, the relationship with nature and pristine imbued with respect for life as a unity in all things, because the elements that embody the essence of the garden, there is no water fountain water flows naturally downwards, not upwards.
On this same principle is based the aesthetic of haiku poetry, where, seizing all that is superfluous, there is a distinctive shape that is opposed to the symbolic meaning. Haiku poem has five lines, 20 words, 80 letters of pervasive emotion, that evoke a thought, experiential resonance.
Haiku is a direct expression of the poet's experience, while in it is not involved the thinking or reasoning. The beauty of haiku is its authenticity, immediacy, and especially in the fact that man has experienced something already known but in a new way - cleaner, stronger, deeper. The time in which the haiku occurs almost exclusively is the present: Minimalism is the spatial haiku.
This is a spatial language of reduced syntax, and composed of refined metaphor. It is a persistent quest for purity, the search for the dignity of silence as a presence, for the density of space, for borderless space where silence speaks for itself.
The sharpness of the primary elements: The emptiness of space is equivalent to the emptiness of spirit as a state that does not cling to anything in which we live fully in the present moment.
This is a reduced language that expresses the essence of architecture and corresponding to an age marked by electronic communications. Belief in the concentrated essence of architecture that speaks their language and can be clearly distinguished from what is architecture, underlying the work of Peter Cumtora: Architecture is not a vehicle or a symbol for things that do not belong to its essence.
In a society that welcomes irrelevant, architecture can resist, thus preventing loss of form and meaning, through the speech with his own language " Zumthor, I'm working on it as the language, and I think you need grammar. The language must be alive, must be changeble, thus changing the grammar. When you learn to adapt to changes and grammar, then you can use it, you have knowledge about or normal work, and you speak in prose.
If you're good at it, you use beautiful prose, and if you're really good you can be a poet. But it is the same language, it is characteristic. The poet does not produce a different language for each song. It is not necessary, he use the same language, even use the same words. I think it's the same in architecture " — David Chipperfield Chipperfild, Architectural language, through term represents the communication of essential features, quality and meaning.
Architectural elements, components and parts, are developed in wide circles of relations, based on many aspects of architecture. In a good building, each unit, no matter how much quality is present, in fact is only part of the building and as such must always be evaluated.
Thoughts of Donald Judd just confirmed to us that the whole is what produces the expression: Maintain the sense of unity, always represents a big problem.
Wall represents border between the inside and outside, breakthrough this border is done through the window door and stairs, which open up the inside to the outside, setting up the interaction and reconciliation and create volume which is an expression of its identity. The walls are pictures of very beginning of the civilization, ideas and frameworks guiding the spatial patterns, mirrors of development or fall of ideologies.
Larkin Administration Building, Finnish Pavilion, New York, Rationalists of the eighteenth century the wall used as a legitimate means for the formation of primary geometric bodies. Boullee and Ledu are the sovereign rulers of the walls. Wall of the 19th century has been burdened with ornaments, to discover the aesthetic values of" pure land, whose expressive power has been lost since Egyptian time" Gidion, Frank Lloyd Wright emphasized the strength of the wall in one of his most famous works - Larkin building Fig.
Berlages Stock Exchange in Amsterdam built in is one of the first buildings in Europe which had the facade of which is treated as a smooth wall surface.
Adolf Loos manipulate with freedom with the masses of the wall, connecting true with aesthetic. Alvar Aalto has placed the wall in the center of the modern architecture. In his Finnish Pavilion Fig. Graceful form of a brick wall represents Aldos ambition to attain organic architecture rich in nuanced form" Lahti, Le Corbusier set up a wall in the center of the story about architecture his second point relates to the functional independence of the skeleton and the wall.
Louis Kahn has posted a new way to set the expressiveness of the wall, for example, walls in Ahmedabad Institute of Public Administration, at Ahmedabad, India, House of Culture, Sturenkatu, Helsinki, Finland, Wall as a motive culminates with the third generation. Daniel Libeskind develops the wall theme in architectural structures, initiated the idea of the wall, lifting it to a higher cognitive level Fig. If the wall is understood as border between inside and outside, the author expresses his views on the borders, so the language represents authors identity.
The wall becomes a rich visual experience expressed by the language of silence. Tadao Ando, sets the wall pure and raw as the holder of the process and volume, and using it he express his strength and durability of its artistic expression in symbiosis, which leads to a different spirituality but always tied to tradition Fig. The wall sometimes express the authors rejection of alienated urban environment Fig. So Ando is using basic geometry as the primary aspect for expression and control, which becomes an expression of quiet serenity of the natural environment or the saturation of urban chaos.
The wall has a certain rigidity, mass continuity, and those properties are transposed to the building itself, which defines the basic character of his expression. Sayamaike Historical Museum, Osaka, Japan, Azuma House, Osaka, Neuendorf House, Majorca, Louis Barragan used a white wall in his house in Las Arboledas as a screen on which he can read the changes in light and a effect similar to shadow of fluttering branches Fig.
In order to express the essence of the building, he is using two walls, high and lower one, and connects them with a big wooden door Fig.
One of them is certainly Eduardo Souto de Moura Fig. Maja House, Maja, Brandhorst Museum, Munchen, A somewhat different expression of the wall, growing out of copyright attitude towards the wall as a border, can be seen at two facilities in Munich. The first is Bradhorst Museum Fig. Another object of the Church of St.
Heart Fig. The front glass facade of the building is a large door that opens during special holidays. Wall as a full dematerialization of space, as well as imagination, the abolition of border inside - outside, are using John Powson and Shigeru Ban, but in different ways. Pouson building has some extended cold poetic aspiration El Croquis, , which is based on the sense of time passing, and which approaches the nature of the object.
The holder of the aspirations of the massive wall, with its continuity, realizes the interaction between the exterior and interior. Powson House, London, Curtain Wall House, Itabashi, Tokyo, Ban is treating the wall as skin, and that way he express his attitude about border McQuaid, Decisive characteristics of the skin, like a layer, is its ability to adapt.
The same happens with the buildings, the walls of their facades adapt. When it is about the natural environment, Ban expressed his view with architecture of transparency: The window symbolizes a connection with those outside, the unknown that is the subject of knowing.