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Hydrologic analysis and design 1 Richard H. McCuen p. Includes index. ISBN 0- 1. Hydraulic engineering. Acquisitions editor:
Occasionally spreadsheets are used. The scope may be national or regional, depending on circumstances. For instance, given the presence of national interconnectors, the western European electricity system may be modeled in its entirety.
Engineering-based models usually contain a good characterization of the technologies involved, including the high-voltage AC transmission grid where appropriate. Some models for instance, models for Germany may assume a single common bus or "copper plate" where the grid is strong. The demand-side in electricity sector models is typically represented by a fixed load profile.
Market-based models, in addition, represent the prevailing electricity market , which may include nodal pricing. Game theory and agent-based models are used to capture and study strategic behavior within electricity markets.
So-called top-down models are broadly economic in nature and based on either partial equilibrium or general equilibrium. General equilibrium models represent a specialized activity and require dedicated algorithms. Partial equilibrium models are more common.
So-called bottom-up models capture the engineering well and often rely on techniques from operations research. Some models allow for these parameters to depend on external conditions, such as ambient temperature. These are typically run by national governments. In a community effort, a large number of existing energy system models were collected in model fact sheets on the Open Energy Platform. LEAP can be used to examine city, statewide, national, and regional energy systems.
LEAP is normally used for forecast studies of between 20—50 years. Most of its calculations occur at yearly intervals. LEAP allows policy analysts to create and evaluate alternative scenarios and to compare their energy requirements, social costs and benefits , and environmental impacts.
Portions of the model may also be used for the commitment and dispatch phase updated on 5 minute intervals in operation of wholesale electric markets for RTO and ISO regions. MARKAL can be used to quantify the impacts of policy options on technology development and natural resource depletion. In both cases, the equilibrium is determined by maximizing the total consumer and producer surplus via linear programming.
This section should describe the calibration process undertaken and how the available data was used to calibrate and verify the model.
Sensitivity of parameters should be identified. In some cases water surface profile models may have been developed. This should have been identified in the section on existing drainage studies. The results of these models may be used but must be verified. The verifications should ensure that the model reflect the present conditions, realistic future development scenarios and up-to-date water management policies.
Sketch of proposed structure s and roadway grades in plan and profile showing crown grade elevation, super structure, bent locations, limits and elevations of rip rap and any channel modifications.
For Culverts The Hydrology Report should document the information listed below. Any special considerations that require a special design should also be included and the resulting design feature documented. Culvert type, shape, size, material, skew and number of barrels - special consideration should be given to whether the culvert is an open footing or closed footing box culvert. Culvert slope, inlet and outlet elevations and longitudinal profile, especially in cases where there are drops inside the culvert.
Tailwater elevation and associated analysis.
The analysis is to be included in an appendix. Type of inlet and outlet treatments including slope tapers, collars, wing-wall, etc. This information should indicate the rationale for selecting the proposed end treatments and an assessment of structural vulnerability to lifting, piping and other forces.
If clay seals are required this should be indicated and their location identified in drawing and sketches.
The inlet, outlet and other minor energy loss coefficients should also be documented. The type of hydraulic analysis methods used design tables or computer software. The discussion in this section should include confirmation that these method s are acceptable to MTO.
Hydraulic analysis for all required flow rates. Headwater elevations for inlet and outlet control conditions identifying the maximum allowable headwater elevation, as described in the design criteria. Inlet and outlet velocity, as well as velocity within the culvert.
Performance curve for inlet, outlet control and the governing conditions. Energy dissipaters, debris control measures and special erosion control measures upstream and downstream. Details of protection measures for corrosion or abrasion inside the culvert, if applicable. If water surface profile software such as CulverMaster is used, refer to the section "Minimum documentation requirements" in the MTO web document " Evaluation of Drainage Management Software " for details.
The High Water Level The Design High Water Level HWL estimates should be documented with background information and calculation procedures s included in an appendix and briefly described in the body of the report.
The Normal Water Levels should also be documented. Channel scour is an important consideration in the design of water crossings as it may undermine the foundations of the structure, possibly leading to its failure. There have been documented failures of structures as a result of scour.
The following facts should be kept in mind when performing the analysis. For each case, various methods of calculating the depth of scour should be considered depending on the site characteristics.
The limitations of each method should be reviewed.
If a particular method is not suited to the site conditions, it should not be used. Scour depths resulting from any analysis should be compared with soil stratigraphy at that depth, including relative compaction, to verify that the initial assumptions of soil properties are valid.
Documentation Requirements This task should identify the extent of scour, both local and natural, and the resulting decision on the type, depth and location of the bridge footings. The information to be documented should include but is not limited to the following: The check flood used for the analysis of scour.
Input parameters to the analysis. This would include: Stream width, depth and slope Stream bed material Constrictions in the channel opening Obstructions in the channel opening The method used in the analysis of local and natural scour. Refer to the section " The Potential for Scour " for more details on the analysis methods of local and natural scour.
The results of the analysis and the methods used to arrive at the final scour depth. The type of footings being proposed and the proposed depth of footing for the abutments and piers. Plot of estimated scour depths on profile view, for each of the design alternatives being considered.